Volume 2; Issue 1 (30 March 2017) – in press

Advanced Nano-Bio-Materials and Devices – AdvNanoBioMD 2018; Vol 2; Issue 1

Advanced Nano-Bio-Materials and Devices – AdvNanoBioMD 2018; Vol 2; Issue 1

Highly-porous ceramics samples based on nanostructured biogenic hydroxyapatite and superfine fumed silica have been prepared using a foam replication method at a sintering temperature of 850°С. They were shown to possess a total porosity 86-89 % and a permeable open-porous (~ 90 % of the total porosity) structure with pore sizes in the range 500-1000 μm. The compression strength is equal to 0.3-0.4 МPа. According to the XRD analysis it was established that during sintering hydroxyapatite phase remains, which was also confirmed by IR spectroscopy data. The carried out studies in vitro (the dissolution rate in saline) of the obtained highly-porous bioceramics showed that the samples are resorbable and their dissolution rate increases with growing porosity and decreasing HA content. Evaluation of adsorption activity (by the example of antibiotic Ceftriaxon) demonstrated prospectivity of ceramics as carriers of drugs for acceleration of patients’ post surgery rehabilitation in orthopedic, traumatic and dentistry surgery.

Gold coated mesoporous silica magnetic nanocomposite (mSiO2@Fe3O4 @Au) was synthesized using ethylene glycol (EG) as template at two different ratios of EG: TEOS of 0.1 and 0.6. The chemistry, morphology, optical and magnetic properties of the obtained nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier Transform (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transverse Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The mean diameter of amino-functionalized SiO2 NPs was measured 70 nm. The range of porosity ranged from 10 to 100 nm, with larger distribution of pore size of less than 20 nm. The average radius of pores on SiO2 NPs calculated by BJH method is approximately 15.5 nm. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with the average diameter of 34 nm were synthesized and then coated by AuNPs with an average size of 25 nm synthesized via a two-step process of dative and reduction method. The average size distribution of mSiO2@Fe3O4@Au nanocomposite was measured about 157 nm. The nanocomposite exhibited a significant red-shift in surface plasmon resonance wavelength (λSPR ≈ 800 nm), which coincides with NIR biomedical applications.

Volume 1; Issue 4 (15 December 2017)

Advanced Nano-Bio-Materials and Devices – AdvNanoBioMD 2017; Vol 1; Issue 4

Advanced Nano-Bio-Materials and Devices – AdvNanoBioMD 2017; Vol 1; Issue 4

In this work, the effect of sonication on the size, morphology, and stability of gold nanostars was investigated for the first time. It was found that the seed-mediated method, followed by the sonication treatment developed in this study, offers new opportunities to synthesize aqueous suspensions of monodispersed gold nanostars with prolonged stability. The results indicate that at a sonication frequency of 25 kHz, the maximum average nanostar size of 120nm is attained. Increasing the sonication frequency, the average size of nanostars decreased significantly and, consequently, the position of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) band, could be easily tuned. It is thought that the change in the morphology is due to the collapse of the cavitation bubble which generates extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. Cavitation images in the gold nanostars solution were for the first time extracted by using an original software. It is found that the gold nanostars, after ultrasound treatment, are substantially more stable because their aggregation becomes much slower. The use of the sonication technique to stabilize gold nanostars, without any additional chemical stabilizer, is both technologically and scientifically important. It can be expected that by using this technique, to be able to produce large volumes of consistent quality, stable gold nanostars.

This work reports on successful one pot surfactant free in-situ synthesis of cobalt doped ZnO-chemically converted graphene (CCG) nanocomposite (CZG) by adopting a low temperature solution process utilizing zinc acetate dihydrate and graphene oxide with varying content of cobalt acetate tetrahydrate (upto 10% Co with respect to Zn) in the precursor medium. The materials properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), FTIR and Raman spectral analyses. The presence of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in the nanocomposites was confirmed by XRD and TEM studies. The TEM study revealed the uniform distribution of hexagonal ZnO in the CCG matrix. The existence of chemical interaction / complexation between CCG with ZnO/Zn2+ of the samples was confirmed by FTIR and Raman spectral analyses. The antibacterial activity was measured on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as water borne bacteria to examine the efficiency of the nanocomposite towards killing the bacterial cells. Among the nanocomposites, 5% Co doped sample showed best antibacterial activity against the microorganisms. This synthesis strategy could open an avenue of Co doped other metal oxide-CCG nanocomposites for biomedical applications.

Here, the Baicalin-loaded PLGA microspheres (BC-MS) were prepared, and their properties in vitro and in vivo were evaluated. The microspheres were prepared using the solvent evaporation method based on O/W emulsion. The HPLC method was established in the determination of the content of baicalin in the microspheres. The surface and particle size were observed by the inverted microscopy, and the characteristics of in vitro release of BC-MS were investigated by dynamic dialysis method. After that, the microspheres were in vivo evaluated in rats. It was observed that the microspheres had an average particle size of 1.89μm, the drug loading was 12.79%, and the encapsulation rate was 85.40%. Moreover, the microspheres were spherical in shape and smooth surface with a uniform distribution. The release profiles of BC-MS agreed with Ritger-Peppas equation. The plasma concentration-time curves of BC-MS were fitted with two-compartment model. The results of pharmacodynamics in rats showed that: the elimination half-life of baicalin solution (BC-S) and Baicalin-loaded PLGA microspheres (BC-MS) were respectively 1.27 h and 258.98 h, mean residence time (MRT) were 0.88 h and 373.01 h, respectively. As the above result shows, BC-MS has the slow-release effect. Thus, the Baicalin-loaded PLGA microspheres have been successfully prepared.

ENFETs are field-effect transistors integrated in the same chip with their recognition enzymatic elements, applied to bio-molecules detection like urea, creatinine, glucose, pesticides and so on. Despites to the recent developments, the concept of the ENFET designing is pretty complex and challenging, requiring microelectronics, electro-chemistry and bio-recognitions knowledge. Therefore, this paper presents some punctual advances in the field of Field Effect Transistor design part, aided by specific software from microelectronics, besides to some specific technological steps encountered to the enzymatic layer immobilization on nanostructured materials on Si-wafers.

This study aimed to develop a sustained-releasing asiaticoside-loaded liposome with well lung-targeting. Liposomes were prepared by film-dispersion and extrusion method. The rotatable central composite design (RCCD) with three-factor and five-level were applied to evaluate the optimization experiments. To maximize the percentage encapsulation efficiency (EE) and drug loading, a quadratic polynomial model was generated to predict and evaluate the independent variables with respect to the dependent variables. Fitting RCCD model were confirmed by the ANOVA Table (P<0.05) through variance analysis, which predicted values of EE (%) and drug loading in good agreement with experimental values. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the response surface, the optimal result for the preparation of D-mannose modified asiaticoside-loaded liposomes, three-dimensional model graphs and plots, were found as follows: the ratio of drug to lipid is 0.07;the ratio of cholesterol to drug is 0.17;and the content of D-mannose is 0.03 g·ml-1. The encapsulation efficiency was 75.529±1.071 % (n=3), the drug loading was 2.539±0.029% (n=3) and the deviation from the predicted values were -0.217% and 0.205%,respectively. The release profiles, pharmacokinetic behaviors and tissue uptake were performed. The results indicated that the asiaticoside loaded in liposomes could have slow and well-controlled release, and half-life increased obviously in vivo. Meanwhile, the asiaticoside would focus on the lung when the octadecylamine was conjugated on the surface of liposomes.

Volume 1; Issue 3 (30 September 2017)

Advanced Nano-Bio-Materials and Devices – AdvNanoBioMD 2017; Vol 1; Issue 3

Advanced Nano-Bio-Materials and Devices – AdvNanoBioMD 2017; Vol 1; Issue 3

For many people, learning about new things such as a second language is an adventure and very fulfilling. Dopamine levels boost in the brain to help us maintain the new information. However, if dopamine levels are low, the new information literally goes in and out of the brain and is lost. This work postulates disability modeling function of dopamine as a neurochemical transporter in the brain for learning language after adsorption on Boron Nitride (BN) and Titanium dioxide (TiO2 Anatase) surfaces through the theoretical methods. Thermodynamic data and vibrations can identify modes of dopamine by comparison between dopamine-Boron Nitride and dopamine-TiO2 clusters.

Porous ferroscaffolds have interesting applications in bioengineering such as tissue engineering, controlled drug release and bioimaging. In this work, the conjugated fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (FMNP) were embedded in the hydrogel scaffold (FFS) to study the effect of static magnetic field on swelling for drug release purpose as well as to serve as an optical marker to monitor visually the swelling of FFS for bioimaging. FFS was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibration scanning magnetometry (VSM), UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS). The LIF exhibited a loss of fluorescence intensity of about 11% and 18% corresponding to laser irradiation time of 10 and 30 s respectively due to quencher fluorescent molecule complex formation. The magnetoelasticity of FFS was studied using He-Ne laser probe beam-magnet experiment. The swelling factor was found to be relatively small, nonetheless it was visually observable due to argon laser-induced fluorescence.

Copper nanoparticles have been synthesized by the reduction of copper ions using plant leaf extracts of khat (Catha edulis), castor oil (Ricimus communis) and derjihara (Prosopis juliflora) as reducing and stabilizing agents. The progress of bio-reduction of Cu2+ ions generating metallic copper was monitored by observing the absorption peak around 566 nm, characteristic of surface plasma resonance of copper. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the face centre cubic (fcc) crystal structure of synthesized copper nanoparticles with average crystallite size within 20 to 30nm. The FTIR spectra suggests that copper nanoparticles are stabilized possibly by proteins molecules present in the leaf extract. The synthesized copper nanoparticles have shown anti-microbial activity against both gram-negative, Escherichia coli, as well as gram-positive, Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The synthesized copper nanoparticles may be tried, clinically, for their antibacterial, cytotoxic, and antibiofilm efficacy or may be used as copper nanoparticles-containing antimicrobial hydrogel membrane for the treatment of wounds.

Volume 1; Issue 2 (30 June 2017)

Advanced Nano-Bio-Materials and Devices – AdvNanoBioMD 2017; Vol 1; Issue 2

Advanced Nano-Bio-Materials and Devices – AdvNanoBioMD 2017; Vol 1; Issue 2

In this study one of classical antibiotic compound nitrofurantoin was studied as micro and nano particles in electrochemical analysis by cyclic voltammetric technique using glassy carbon electrode in blood medium to observe the oxidative effect on the blood components. It was found oxidation – reduction current peaks of nitrofurantoin in blood medium at +1 and -0.75 V respectively. The oxidation current peak was disappeared for the nitrofurantoin nano particles in blood medium, but for micro particles is still oxidize the blood. Different concentration and scan rate were studied to observation the electrochemical behavior of nitrofurantoin nano particles in blood medium which has good analysis.

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) - polycaprolactone (PCL) composite has found enhanced interest as scaffold material for bone tissue engineering application. The HAp phase is bioactive and provide the favorable environment for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and cell conduction whereas the biodegradable PCL provide the required flexibility, mouldability and resorbability. Nanoparticles of HAp has been synthesized by precipitation method from Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and H3PO4 as precursors of Ca and P using tetrahydrofuran (THF) as the medium. The powder prepared was characterized for phase purity, functional group, particle size, surface area and morphology in comparison with the powder prepared using deionised water as the medium. By following the similar procedure of precipitation, nanoHAp was prepared in the PCL matrix with HAp to PCL ratio of 80:20 by wt % and HAp-PCL composite powder was filtered, dried at <50°C and characterized. The synthesized HAp and HAp-PCL composite show nano sized primary particles having X-ray pure hydroxyapatite phase. The HAp-PCL composite having homogeneous distribution of nanoHAp particles in PCL matrix could be a potential scaffold material for tissue engineering applications.

The purpose of this study was to prepare and to characterize a new formulation of injectable capsaicin loaded poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres (CAP-MS). The emulsion solvent evaporation process based on O/W emulsion was applied to prepared the CAP-MS with optimization of formulation using uniform design with three factors and six levels. The optimized formulation was then evaluated in terms of size, encapsulation efficiencies, drug loading, in vitro release profile, distribution and pharmacokinetics. According to the mathematic models, the optimal prescription and preparation technology can be conducted at the concentration of PLGA of 2%, the rotation speed of 1000 rpm and the mass ratio (CAP/PLGA) 1:2. The optimized CAP-MS resulted in spherical shapes and possessed a smooth surface. Average diameter, encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were turned out to be 4.73μm, 82.82% and 27.60%, respectively. In vitro release study represented a low initial burst release of approximately 21.26% within the first 24 h followed by a prolonged release up to 12 days and the release kinetics fitted well to the Higuchi model. In vivo results demonstrated that the drug suspension released rapidly after subcutaneous injection, the accumulate drug release was more than 97% after 12 hours, while the drug loaded microspheres release profile showed a large initial burst effect (59%), and then released slowly, nearly 100% of capsaicin released at the end of 20 days. These results indicate the PLGA microspheres is a promising system that could be exploited as a delivery system for capsaicin with high drug loading capacity and sustained drug release.

A customized optical system composed of collimating and focusing lenses is proposed to achieve the beam focusing of high-brightness diode laser bars with high fill factor for optoacoustic applications. Through an optimized design, the beam of a 940-nm diode laser bar is first collimated and symmetrized between the fast and slow axes, and then is reduced in size into a square beam (~ 3.7 mm x 3.7 mm at 1/e2 of the peak) with intensity of ~ 3.2 kW/cm2. In an optoacoustic environment, the optical spot achieved can illuminate a small region of tissue at high intensity to achieve in-depth imaging with high resolution.

The main advantage of optoacoustic imaging (OAI) is the capability to detect diseases at their early stages of growth. The efficiency of this technique has been demonstrated by preliminary studies with real biological tissues and small animals. The definitive goal of in-vivo OAI is to provide maps of the absolute concentration of chromophores with the help of exogenous optical contrast agents. Usually, solid-state lasers are used for the generation of ultrasounds but their use in clinical environment is inconvenient due to their large sizes, high costs, and low repetition rates (a few Hz) that are not sufficient for a high resolution during image processing. However, the requirements of high repetition rates (up a few kHz) can be fulfilled by high-power diode lasers (HPDLs) combined in side-by-side arrays. In the present paper, we implement a three-wavelength optoacoustic (OA) system consisting on a small array of HPDLs and a diode laser bar (DLB) operating at 870 nm, 905 nm, and 972 nm, respectively, coupled to a 1.2-mm diameter optical fiber bundle. The combined beam illuminates different mixtures of two gold nanorods solutions with absorbance peak at ~ 860 nm and ~ 900 nm, respectively, to generate OA signals. The pulses produced to generate OA signals are alternated between the three wavelengths by a microcontroller circuit with fast switching (0.33 ms). An inverse algorithm is implemented to estimate the concentrations of the nanoparticles solutions from the amplitude of the OA signals. The results achieved with our system show good agreement between the concentrations of gold nanorods estimated from measurements and the expected values.

Volume 1; Issue 1 (30 March 2017)

Advanced Nano-Bio-Materials and Devices – AdvNanoBioMD 2017; Vol 1; Issue 1

Advanced Nano-Bio-Materials and Devices – AdvNanoBioMD 2017; Vol 1; Issue 1

Metal nanoparticles are of interest for different biomedical and technical applications, for example by conjugation with DNA, enzymes or other biomolecules, for on-chip-labeling, for SERS-analytics, for heterogeneous catalysis and as antibacterial additives. Non-spherical metal nanoparticles are in the focus of developments due to their size- and shape-dependent optical properties. Recent results on the synthesis and behavior of noble metal nanoparticles are discussed from the point of view of the electric behaviour. The particle growth by a metal-catalyzed reductive metal deposition in liquid phase is regarded as an open-circuit mixed electrode system. Potential formation and the related electric charging of metal nanoparticles lead to self-polarization effects. These effects enforce spontaneous symmetry breaking effects during the formation of metal nanoparticles and explain the growth of non-spherical particles with high aspect ratios.

The paper presents some advances of a vacuum nano-transistor, known as Nothing On Insulator NOI device. The breakdown limitations are considered for ultra-thin buried oxide and different semiconductor islands shape. The relationship between oxide / semiconductor thickness and the breakdown voltage of the structure allow the gate limit voltage increasing from -6.5V to -12V using 15nm instead 10nm buried oxide. Reshaping the NOI transistor, a special semiconductor wall with one cube of roughnesses is analysed. The 1-cube variant has intermediate performances, as the maximum current capabilities.

We derive the Schrödinger eigen-energy dispersion relation for electrons on a two dimensional sheet with a one dimensional periodic lattice of quantum antidot potential barriers, in the presence of a strong perpendicular magnetic field. This system is Landau quantized by the high magnetic field and we determine the associated Green's function for propagation along the axis of the antidot lattice, which we use to formulate the dispersion relation for the energy spectrum analytically in a closed form in terms of the Jacobi Theta Function (3rd kind). An approximate solution for the Landau quantized eigen-energies is obtained in terms of Laguerre polynomials, and the development of Landau minibands is explicitly exhibited.

Present study inspects the profiles of self-polarization effect (SPE) of impurity doped GaAs quantum dots (QDs) in presence of noise. Noise term maintains a Gaussian white character and it has been introduced to the system via two different pathways; additive and multiplicative. In view of a comprehensive analysis, modulation of SPE has been scrutinized along with the variations of several relevant quantities such as electric field, magnetic field, confinement potential, dopant location, dopant potential, noise strength and aluminium concentration (only for AlxGa1−xAs QD). Application of noise affects SPE noticeably. However, the extent to which SPE is altered depends on the noise strength domain and the pathway through which noise is applied. The outcomes of the study delineate viable routes to tune the SPE of doped QD system, particularly in presence of noise.

Shells of Jatorpha curcas is commonly used as fuel and as soil fertilizer. In our study, we investigate the use of shells to synthesize nanoscale particles by mechanical grinding via top down approach. The shade-dried shells are subjected to high energy milling to produce nanoparticles and the collected powder is characterized for their particle size, crystallinity, functional group and elemental composition. Antimicrobial activity of the prepared nanoparticles reveals the significant inhibitory effect against Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and S. epidermis) and gram negative bacteria (E. coli and K. pneumoniae). Growth of gram positive organism is found to be reduced by 50-60 % when the particle size is increased from 1 to 20 mg/ml whereas gram negative bacteria has 30-45 % of growth reduction. When compared to control, shell nanoparticles exhibit an excellent antioxidant activity about at 78 % at 20 mg/ml against DPPH reagent. This preliminary evaluation for the bioactivity of shell nanoparticles from Jatropha lead the future biorefinery processing of Jatropha plant materials into cost effective biological product development.

It is ineluctable that language is a clear truism of the challenging of the human mind and it connects impressively to the brain. It has been investigated that neurotransmitters such as dopamine control human speech mechanism. In this work, it has been clarified the relation between language and brain through the chemical neurotransmitter by measuring the physicochemical properties of relative energy, Van der Waals forces and dipole moment via computational modeling. Then thermodynamic properties have been calculated by infrared radiation to recognize the active sites of dopamine structure and comparing it by some other neurotransmitters. In this paper, it has been exhibited that how dopamine can be effective for learning a new language and makes it easier and enjoyable.

This work is focussed on the role of the angle of incidence of an incoming electromagnetic wave in its transmission through a subwavelength nano-hole in a thin, smooth, planar semiconductor plasmonic layer. Fully detailed calculations and results are exhibited for p- and s-polarizations of the incident wave for a variety of incident angles in the middle and far zones of the transmitted radiation. Our dyadic Green’s function formulation includes both (1) the electromagnetic field transmitted directly through the 2D plasmonic layer superposed with (2) the radiation emanating from the nano-hole. Interference fringes due to this superposition are explicitly exhibited. Based on an integral equation formulation, this dyadic Green’s function approach does not involve any appeal to ideal metallic boundary conditions. It does incorporate the role of the 2D plasmon of the semiconductor layer, which is smeared due to its lateral wave number dependence.
We find that the interference fringes, which are clustered near the nano-hole, flatten to a uniform level of transmission directly through the sheet alone at large distances from the nano-hole. Furthermore, as the incident angle increases, the axis of the relatively large central transmission maximum through the nano-hole follows it, accompanied by a spatial compression of interference fringe maxima forward of the large central transmission maximum, and a spatial thinning of the fringe maxima behind it. For p-polarization, the transmission results show a strong increase as the incident angle 0 increases, mainly in the dominant Ez component (notwithstanding a concomitant decrease of the Ex component as 0 increases). We also find that in the case of s-polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave, the transmission decreases as 0 increases. These results, for both p- and s-polarizations, are consistent with earlier results for perfect metal boundary conditions, although such ideal boundary conditions are not invoked here as we have treated the problem of a nano-hole in a semiconductor layer and have determined its electromagnetic transmission including the role of its two dimensional plasma.

Magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) have been synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method with capable of controlling the average particle size of CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Further, the surface of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was coated with sodium oleate as the primary layer and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000) as the second layer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated the sole existence of partially inverse cubic spinel phase of CoFe2O4 and the average particle size calculated from XRD of about 29 nm. SEM analysis showed that the surface modification with PEG could increase crystallinity of nanoparticles, decrease the agglomeration and control the shape to more spherical. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis indicated existence of two distinct surfactants on the particle surface. In addition, the results of FT-IR indicated that the coated CoFe2O4 particles improved with the thermal stability due to the interaction between the CoFe2O4 particles and protective layers. Magnetic characterization of CoFe2O4 was studied by Electron spin resonance (ESR). The results showed that the existence PEG in the CoFe2O4 decrease the spin resonance of conduction electrons.

KCC-1/bpt/Pd catalyst was readily prepared for first time from inexpensive starting materials in aqueous media which catalyzed the synthesis 1,4-dihydropyridines and 2-vinyl furans. High catalytic activity and ease of recovery from the reaction mixture using filtration, and several reuse times without significant losses in performance are additional eco-friendly attributes of this catalytic system.

Heme-based Metalloproteins play essential part as nano-biosensor for diatomic gases such as NO, O2, CO and so on. The electron and optic properties, and adsorption energy of Heme complex as the nano-biosensor for O2 and CO gases were studied using ab initio studies and density function theory (DFT) approach. The results show that Heme is highly capable of being used as a nano-biosensor for O2 and CO gases. Carbon monoxide has a lower adsorption energy but higher electron transfers with Heme. Energy gap raised to 0.09 eV in the presence of O2 and to 0.39 Ev in the presence of CO, which indicates the higher sensitivity of Heme to CO.