Recent Advances in Food Science – RAdvFoodSci 2018; Vol 1; Issue 2 (30 June)


The aim of this research work was to isolate and characterise lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from ugba, a traditional fermented food in Nigeria; and to evaluate their biopreservative potential in the preservation of the product. Twenty LAB isolates were isolated and biochemically characterized from the fermented food product and they were phenotypically identified. The use of molecular method, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used in obtaining genomic discriminations and similarities among them, using Sma1 restriction enzyme for genomic DNA digestion. The PFGE analysis yielded three main clusters based on their finger print patterns when electrophoresed in agarose gel. Two of the LAB isolates Lactobacillus plantarum and L. salivarius that produced considerable concentrations of lactic and acetic acids, 25.18 and 2.82g per 107 CFU respectively, were chosen as starter cultures to evaluate their biopreservative potential on ugba during production and storage. The samples inoculated and uninoculated with the starter cultures were stored for 120 h, during which bacteria and fungi counts were monitored. Samples inoculated with LAB cultures recorded at least I log reduction in the total bacteria and fungi counts when compared with the uninoculated control samples; this indicates that suitable LAB cultures could be used in the biopreservation of the fermented food product. It was concluded that a good number of LAB were associated with ugba, and suitable strains may possess biopreservative potential for use as biological agents of preservation in the traditional fermented food product, ugba.


It has been widely accepted that the first years of life are key determinants of future adult height. Japan suffered very severe food shortages during WW II and the first few years of the post-war period, followed by a quick recovery and steady and rapid economic progress toward the early 1990s. Children in Japan grew in height from the mid-1950s onward. Young adults in their early 20s in the 1960s were born in the mid-1940s, during a period of extreme shortage of food supply, but grew up in the late 1950s, with increasing food supply. Those cohorts born during the war years are found to show exceptionally large growth velocity during late adolescence, indicating the actual chances for “catch-up growth” even after the puberty spurt.



Recent Advances in Food Science – RAdvFoodSci 2018; Vol 1; Issue 1 (30 March)

There is increasing evidence that changes in the environment and in the human health have a strong relationship with the use of pesticides. Wild populations of birds, freshwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, insects and several other species are declining at an alarming speed. Society has tried to protect man and his environment with maximum tolerated levels of pesticides in soil and water and in food. However, these limits are rather a result of wishful thinking than of scientific scrutiny. The authorization procedures for pesticides have fully ignored the impact of cumulative toxicity. The toxicity of many pesticides is determined not only by dose but also by exposure time, and in some cases, such as the neonicotinoid pesticides, toxicity is even reinforced by exposure time. The alarming truth is that the dose-time-response relationship of the most pesticides is fully unknown, since this information is not required in official authorization procedures. The consequence of time-dependent toxicity is that for many pesticides the current maximum tolerated levels may seriously underestimate actual risk. These chemicals need to be identified and removed from the market as soon as possible. Testing should be performed by independent organizations and authorization data should become accessible for the public. At the same time, organic farming should be stimulated in which synthetic pesticides are not used altogether. Almost 185.000 organic farms in Europe prove that this is a good alternative.

Background: Uganda is a country where public health concerns include malnutrition at the forefront. We sought to assess the association between food insecurity and under-nutrition, as well as the more novel association with over-nutrition in Ugandan children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1,612 households was conducted in a rural sub-county of East Central Uganda from July to August 2016. Eligible participants were adults aged 18-54. 559 households received mid-upper arm circumference measurement and 353 received height and weight measurements. The Household Hunger Score was used as the indicator for food insecurity. Results: A total of 167 children were included in the final analysis. The majority of households, 92% (n=126/137), had HHS scores with: “Little to no hunger in the household”. According to weight-for-height, a higher proportion of children met cutoffs for overweight (27.4%, n=31/113), or obesity (12.4%, n=14/113) than moderate (10.6%, 12/113) or severe (4.4%, 5/113) under-nourished status. Conclusion: Our study did not reveal strong evidence of association between food insecurity and over-nutrition, although our analyses were limited by the number of respondents with anthropometric measurements. The under-nutrition front has seen minimal improvement in Uganda, and over-nutrition has gone unaddressed. The relatively high prevalence of over-nutrition supports further research on the topic.

This study was focused on substituting a part of wheat flour (WF) with whole meal barley (WMB) in making of balady bread and biscuits, to preparation of some functional bakery products, because of the health benefits of barley. Chemical, rheological, and sensory properties were determined. Freshness of balady bread was evaluated. Farinograph data showed that increasing barley replacement level resulted in increasing water absorption and mixing time, while dough stability decreased. The organoleptic properties of balady bread and biscuit made from barley / wheat blends with a replacement level of 45% received consumer acceptance. Barley balady bread showed a better retaining of freshness during storage at room temperature.

The freezing process of turmeric starch was modeled to determine the rate of freezing water inside freezing turmeric starch for use in the freeze-drying process. The results obtained were used to determine the optimal freezing temperature of turmeric starch of -21.6oC (The water inside turmeric starch was completely crystallized or the rate of freezing water inside turmeric starch was 100%). This basic parameter is essential to set up the technological mode of the freezing process of turmeric starch for freeze drying.

Child growth and development in the first 1000 days is crucial to the future of every nation. This paper provides data on the mycotoxins safety of breast milk vis-a-vis some infant formula and complementary foods commonly used in weaning young children in Bangangté and Mbankomo in Cameroon. Overall, 49% (46/93) of breast milk, infant formula (commercial milk) and complementary foods (pap, Cereal-based flour mixture, and yoghurts) were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin. Studied commercial milk (mean: 9.8µg kg-1, max: 33.7 µg kg-1) was more tainted with AFM1 relative to breast milk (mean: 7.4µg kg-1, max: 36.7 µg kg-1) samples. Total AFs and FBs were mainly concentrated in pap (mean: 177µg kg-1, max: 700 µg kg-1 and mean: 17673µg kg-1, max: 56000 µg kg-1, respectively). Yogurt revealed highest levels of DON (mean: 566µg kg-1, max: 870µg kg-1). Similar to previous reports from Cameroon, mean levels of all studied mycotoxins exceeded their corresponding regulatory levels. This speculates that the aggregate exposures of infants and young children to these mycotoxins may be linked to more severe health implications than currently imagined. For the first time in Cameroon, this report has provided data on mycotoxin safety of breast milk vis-a-vis infant formula and complementary foods commonly used to wean young children in Cameroon. More attention is needed on the quality of infant formula and local complementary foods from a mycotoxin perspective as a step towards reducing dietary mycotoxin exposures amongst young children.

Correlation formulas are developed to estimate the dietary and total greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) from the twenty members of the Group of Twenty (G20) and the world in 2014 and 2017 using personal meat consumption as the required input. Among the 43 states in G20, the 28 states of the European Union (EU28) are considered as a whole. Based on 47,381 dietary survey samples, a formula is developed to establish the relationship between the meat consumption and GHGEs from human dietary and total activities. The present study finds that, in 2014, the daily dietary GHGE per capita of the G20 members varies widely from India’s 4.122 kgCO2e to Australia’s 8.876 kgCO2e while the contribution of the dietary GHGE to the total GHGE differs from Canada’s 11.8% to India’s 60.8%, where the world average is 33.1%. From 2014 to 2017, the annual growth rate of the total GHGE varies from 0.016% in Japan to 3.279% in Saudi Arabia. All results attest that there is a substantial room for the huge dietary and total emitters to improve their efforts in reducing GHGEs. Correlation formulas are developed to estimate dietary and total greenhouse-gas emissions. The dietary and total greenhouse-gas emissions of the G20 and the world in 2014 and 2017 are evaluated. The formulas predicate that the global total GHGEs increase monotonically from 50,686 GtCO2e in 2017 to 55.159 GtCO2e in 2025, respectively. It has been shown that these formulas could provide benchmark information for developing strategies for reducing GHGEs in order to mitigate global warming problems.

The current study evaluates the influence of combination of ultrasound pretreatment and cellulase enzymatic extraction using n-hexane solvent on iodine and saponification values of extracted peanut oil. To obtain this goal, the effects of ultrasonic time in the range of 0 to 70 min, cellulase enzyme concentration in the range of 0 to 2 % and pH in the range of 4 to 5.5 were investigated on iodine and saponification values of peanut oil using response surface methodology (RSM). It was found that the iodine and saponification values of the extracted oil were very sensitive to the changes in the ultrasonic time; and the most iodine and saponification values were obtained at ultrasonic pretreatment time of 70 min. In summary, the ultrasound-assisted enzymatic process provides an efficient technique for extraction of peanut oil with high iodine and saponification values for application in various industries such as cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food.