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Fozia KAMRAN, Narsimha REDDY; Bioactive Peptides from Legumes: Functional and Nutraceutical Potential ; Recent Advances in Food Science; 2018; 1(3): 134-149
Protein from legumes are excellent sources of bioactive peptides. Enzymatically derived bioactive peptides from legume proteins display a spectrum of biological activities ranging from nutraceutical to therapeutic potential. Consequently, these peptides possess excellent health promoting properties and potentially prevent many diseases making them extremely suitable for nutraceutical applications. Literature also revealed that the legume proteins: such as soy, lupin, chickpea, yellow pea, common bean and lentil proteins display direct health promoting properties and/or their consumption leads to the production of bioactive peptides by digestive enzymes. Therefore, the direct consumption of legume protein and the food containing such protein provides functional benefits. Literature reviewed in this article showed significant bioactivities of soy protein hydrolysates including the prevention of liver, lung and colon cancer. Soybean peptides are widely used as functional foods to improve the health benefits of many food products. Lupin, yellow pea and chickpea protein hydrolysates have also displayed potent cholesterol lowering, anti-inflammatory, ACE inhibitory, immunomodulatory and antitumor properties. This review highlights the functional applications of legume protein and the nutraceutical applications of legume protein derived bioactive peptides. In this arena of developing extremely beneficial bioactive peptides from food protein, it is necessary to understand the structure-activity relationship of these important biomolecules. A thorough knowledge of such a relationship will provide cues for the selection of suitable enzymes to produce extremely active peptide structures from the known food protein sequences. This review has therefore devoted significant attention to structure-activity relationship of bioactive peptides. This review also highlights the importance of structure determination tools such as NMR spectroscopy as many of the food derived peptide structures are yet to be determined.