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Liviu Popa-Simil; The applications of Micro-Nano-Cer-Liq materials in nuclear power ; Advanced NanoMaterials and Technologies for Energy Sector; 2017:1(4): 160-176
Modern nuclear fuels exploit the unique features of nano-structures. With proper engineering of fuel micro-nano-structure, fission products can, in principle, be separated from the fuel in-situ, and further be separated by the transmutation products. Fuel entities which are about 10 to 30 microns in diameter can contain the fuel ions in the particles while allowing the fission fragments to escape into the surrounding matrix, by virtue of the difference in travel distance. The matrix is chemically engineered to form stable phases with the most common fission products so that these products do not diffuse back into the fuel particles. This nano-structure engineering of fuels can be done with virtually any existing fuel, including oxides or metals for both thermal and fast reactors. A variant of this idea is to use a flowing liquid that may be continually cleaned, in order to remove the fission products, leaving a fuel which is clean and long-lived, or which may be sealed inside the pellet cladding improving the fuel performances and its reprocessing technology. The applications are in Light Water reactors, Fast breeder Reactors and Traveling singular wave reactor, making possible the increase in their burnup, life-time, performances.