Veronica-Georgiana FETIC, Ionut-Daniel BUDULAN, Eugenia-Andreea BIRZANU, Teodora-Maria IONESCU, Iuliana ROSCA; Immuno-Field-Effect Transistors Evolution – a Review. Advanced Nano-Bio-Materials and Devices; 2023:7(4):732-744

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Veronica-Georgiana FETIC, Ionut-Daniel BUDULAN, Eugenia-Andreea BIRZANU, Teodora-Maria IONESCU, Iuliana ROSCA; Immuno-Field-Effect Transistors Evolution – a Review. Advanced Nano-Bio-Materials and Devices; 2023:7(4):732-744

This paper presents the important aspects of the field-effect transistors working as immunosensors, known as Immuno-FETs, their evolution in terms of technology, performances and some of their most significant applications. The gate of the immuno-transistor is enveloped with a distinct biological recognition element, such as an antibody, that seizes the desired target molecule. The existence or non-existence of the target molecule is ascertained through variations in the electrical signal that modify the charge within the FET channel. The effectiveness of Immuno-FETs has been consistently advancing and enhancing throughout the years, yet certain shortcomings have endured. Early Immuno-FETs employed polyclonal antibodies as recognition components, exhibiting poor selectivity and limited sensitivity. The progress in nanotechnology facilitated the impressive miniaturization of Immuno-FETs, leading to considerably diminished proportions. This decrease in size played a role in improved sensitivity and lowered limits of detection. These parameters were improved by the incorporation of innovative materials like graphene and carbon nanotubes. In general, the Immuno-FET's performances are dictated by its specific technology that significantly improved, rendering them as suitable contenders for potential applications in domains such as environmental observation, nutrition hygiene, and healthcare examination.